Complex Trauma results from prolonged or multiple abuse where the victim has little chance of escape or reprieve. It is associated with domestic abuse and neglect as well as situations such as child trafficking, slavery and war.

Effects are deep and long lasting and may develop into C-PTSD (complex post traumatic stress disorder) due to extent and longevity of harm.

The repercussions for the victim can be profound: emotional flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, social isolation, physical symptoms and a fear of trusting others.

Healing and recovery is possible over time and with a combination of therapies such as psychotherapy and EDMR.

Victims may also experience post traumatic growth as they recover, becoming stronger and more resilient and able to give to others empathetically because of their own experience of survival and subsequent regaining of a sense of self and agency.

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