Trauma can be physical or psychological. It is usually a ‘direct personal experience that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury to oneself, a family member or close friend, such as a sudden unexpected injury, accident, kidnapping experience of war or other violence.’ (DSM-5)

It can result in the development of PTSD or post traumatic stress disorder when the experience of the trauma overwhelms a person’s ability to process the horror and violation to themselves or a loved one.

Symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, physical symptoms, extreme anxiety and the ability to function well in everyday life may occur.

Recovery is possible through therapy, kindness and emotional support.